Case Studies supporting PEMF benefits for Cancer
Alternating electric fields (TTFields) inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs
Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are low intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields used to treat cancerous tumors. This novel treatment modality effectively inhibits the growth of solid tumors in vivo and has shown promise in pilot clinical trials in patients with advanced stage solid tumors. TTFields were tested for their potential to inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs in two animal models: (1) Mice injected with malignant melanoma cells (B16F10) into the tail vein, (2) New Zealand White rabbits implanted with VX-2 tumors within the kidney capsule. Mice and rabbits were treated using two-directional TTFields at 100– 200 kHz. Animals were either monitored for survival, or sacrificed for pathological and histological analysis of the lungs. The total number of lung surface metastases and the absolute weight of the lungs were both significantly lower in TTFields treated mice then in sham control mice. TTFields treated rabbits survived longer than sham control animals. This extension in survival was found to be due to an inhibition of metastatic spread, seeding or growth in the lungs of TTFields treated rabbits compared to controls. Histologically, extensive peri- and intra-tumoral immune cell infiltration was seen in TTFields treated rabbits only. These results raise the possibility that in addition to their proven inhibitory effect on the growth of solid tumors, TTFields may also have clinical benefit in the prevention of metastatic spread from primary tumors.
An introduction to electromagnetic field therapy and immune function: a brief history and current status
Interest in electromagnetic field (EMF) treatments has increased rapidly in recent years due to its advantages over other treatments for tissue healing and infection. Benefits include low-cost, ready availability, ease of localized application, few if any side-effects, and indefinite shelf life. Immunological studies show that low-intensity EMF can interact with cells and tissues, providing a large number of anti-inflammatory and wound healing applications. The effect of EMF on the immune system in phagocytic cells alone has attracted attention because of the role that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) plays in decreasing the growth rate of bacteria. With today’s antibiotic-resistant bacteria, medicine is in need of a mechanism to aid in the control of inflammatory response, greatly benefitting the fields of disease pathology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Beneficial Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation in Cancer
In the last three decade's, a large number of studies have arisen, which dealt with the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in biological systems (Aaron & Ciombor, 1993; Tao & Henderson, 1999; Tofani et al., 2002b; Walker et al., 2007). The EMFs have been used in very important technological applications that concern in diagnosis (e.g. MRI, X-rays, CT). A part of scientific community turned its interest to the application of EMFs in the treatment of various pathological conditions, mainly in experimental level, such as osteoporosis, bone fractures, muscle regeneration, diabetes, arthritis and neurological disorders (Barker et al., 1984; Bassett et al., 1974a; Dortch & Johnson, 2006; Fischer et al., 2005; László et al., 2011; Otter et al., 1998; Tabrah et al., 1990; Wang et al., 2010). The last decade's EMFs are gradually being used in the research field of one of the most deadly diseases known to man, cancer.
Cancer constitutes one of the most serious causes of death worldwide and according to World Health Organization (WHO), it accounted for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008 (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011). Deaths from cancer are projected to continue rising to over 11 million in 2030.
The modern methods of cancer treatment include: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy etc. Clinicians select the suitable treatment for the patient, examining, apart from the general situation of his health, the type of cancer, the location and grade of the tumour as well as the stage of the disease. Certain types of cancer, due to their complexity, require a combination of treatments. The patients, however, are called to face the side effects, which often accompany the therapeutic methods, such as fatigue, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, pain, hair loss, nerve and muscle effects, metastasis and many others. The final aim of the scientists is to increase the effectiveness of the existing treatments, eliminate the side effects and to improve as much as possible the quality of life of the patient. Data provided by several studies support the possible development of new alternative forms of treatment, which in combination with the already existing ones, could contribute in the achievement of this aim.
Several epidemiological studies have implicated the EMFs with the induction of mutations, leukaemia and neurological and cardiovascular disorders (Ahlbom et al., 2001). Although there are indications of the adverse effects of EMFs, the authors’ opinion is that this is the one side of the coin. Therefore, the other side of the coin is the study of possible anticancer effects of EMFs; this constitutes a challenge.
There is data supporting the opinion that the use of EMFs has effects in the cell proliferation and in malignant tumours in animals (Tofani et al., 2001; Yamaguchi et al., 2006). It has also been reported that EMFs could act synergistically with chemotherapeutic agents (Gray et al, 2000; Ruiz Gómez et al., 2002), and reverse the resistance of cancer cells in chemotherapy (Hirata et al., 2001; Janigro et al., 2006). Certain clinical studies have shown that the application of EMFs in cancer patients, does not present side effects or toxicity (Barbault et al., 2009; Roncheto et al., 2004). Existed data, also indicate that they prolong the survival time of patients and inhibit the disease progression (Barbault et al., 2009; Kirson et al., 2007). Consequently, EMFs can be used as a low-cost, safe and adjuvant treatment of the existing anticancer therapy.
Bioelectromagnetic Field Effects on Cancer Cells and Mice Tumors
We present possibilities and trends of ELF bioelectromagnetic effects in the mT amplitude range on cancer cells and on mice bearing tumors. In contrast to invasive electrochemotherapy and electrogenetherapy, using mostly needle electrodes and single high-amplitude electropulses for treatment, extremely low-frequency (ELF) pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMF) induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit angiogenesis, impede proliferation of neoplastic cells, and cause necrosis non invasively, whereas human lymphocytes are negligibly affected. Our successful results in killing cancer cells—analyzed by trypan blue staining or by flow cytometry—and of the inhibition of MX-1 tumors in mice by 15–20 mT, 50 Hz treatment in a solenoid coil also in the presence of bleomycin are presented in comparison to similar experimental results from the literature.
In conclusion, the synergistic combinations of PEMF or SEMF with hyperthermia (41.51C) and/or cancerostatic agents presented in the tables for cells and mice offer a basis for further development of an adjuvant treatment for patients suffering from malignant tumors and metastases pending the near-term development of suitable solenoids of 45–60 cm in diameter, producing 420mT in their cores.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSATING MAGNETIC FIELDS: ROLE OF SOLITONS
In this paper, we analyze biological effects produced by magnetic fields in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms, which can produce them. We show that there is a hierarchy of such mechanisms and that the mutual interplay between them can result in the synergetic outcome. In particular, we analyze the biological effects of magnetic fields on soliton mediated charge transport in the redox processes in living organisms. Such solitons are described by nonlinear systems of equations and represent electrons that are self-trapped in alpha-helical polypeptides due to the moderately strong electron-lattice interaction. They represent a particular type of dissipationless large polarons in low-dimensional systems. We show that the effective mass of solitons in the electrons is different from the mass of free electrons, and that there is a resonant effect of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of solitons, and, hence, on charge transport that accompanies photosynthesis and respiration. These effects can result in non-thermal resonant effects of magnetic fields on redox processes in particular, and on the metabolism of the organism in general. This can explain physical mechanisms of therapies based on applying magnetic fields.
Biophysical and Biological Studies on the Effect of Electromagnetic Field on the Ehrlich Tumor Cells Implanted In Mice
A study of the growth retardation of liquid tumor cells (Ehrlich tumor) implanted in female mice by employing extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 2 mT) has been carried out for continuous exposure periods of 20 and 40 days. Seventy two female BALB/c mice were used. They were equally divided into 4 groups: kept as control, groups 1 and 2, implanted intraperitoneally "I/P" with 2x106 Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) groups 3 and 4 as single dose. Groups 2 and 4 were exposed to EMF for a period of 40 days. Two blood samples were collected after 20 and 40 days for hematological and biochemical examinations. Two samples of tumor cells were used for electrophoresis examination. The results showed that I/P implantation of EATC (group 3) resulted in relative polycythemia; leucocytosis with neutrophilia and a significant increase in the liver and kidney function indicators (bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus and sodium) while the serum total proteins, calcium and potassium levels were significantly decreased. The present results show that exposing the mice (group 4) to EMF they near the control ones. The results of protein electrophoresis revealed not only a decrease in the protein content of the Ehrlich tumor, but also considerable changes in its molecular structure as a result of exposing to 20 or 40 days of EMF. Such a decrease was found to be proportional to the exposure periods. Early treatment of the tumor cells by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field gave better results.
Cutaneous Papilloma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapy Utilizing Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEF)
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) induce apoptotic pathways in human cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effective of nsPEF has been reported in cell lines and in xenograft animal tumor models. The present study investigated the ability of nsPEF to cause cancer cell death in vivo using carcinogen-induced animal tumor models, and the pulse duration of nsPEF was only 7 and 14 nano seconds (ns). An nsPEF generator as a prototype medical device was used in our studies, which is capable of delivering 7–30 nanosecond pulses at various programmable amplitudes and frequencies. Seven cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and five other types of cancer cell lines were used to detect the effect of nsPEF in vitro. Rate of cell death in these 12 different cancer cell lines was dependent on nsPEF voltage and pulse number. To examine the effect of nsPEF in vivo, carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice were exposed to nsPEF with three pulse numbers (50, 200, and 400 pulses), two nominal electric fields (40 KV/cm and 31 KV/cm), and two pulse durations (7 ns and 14 ns). Carcinogen-induced cutaneous papillomas and squamous carcinomas were eliminated efficiently using one treatment of nsPEF with 14 ns duration pulses (33/39 = 85%), and all remaining lesions were eliminated after a 2nd treatment (6/39 = 15%). 13.5% of carcinogen-induced tumors (5 of 37) were eliminated using 7 ns duration pulses after one treatment of nsPEF. Associated with tumor lysis, expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bclxl and Bcl-2 were markedly reduced and apoptosis increased (TUNEL assay) after nsPEF treatment. nsPEF efficiently causes cell death in vitro and removes papillomas and squamous cell carcinoma in vivo from skin of mice. nsPEF has the therapeutic potential to remove human squamous carcinoma.
Disruption of Cancer Cell Replication by Alternating Electric Fields
Low-intensity, intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz), alternating electric fields, delivered by means of insulated electrodes, were found to have a profound inhibitory effect on the growth rate of a variety of human and rodent tumor cell lines (Patricia C, U-118, U-87, H-1299, MDA231, PC3, B16F1, F-98, C-6, RG2, and CT-26) and malignant tumors in animals. This effect, shown to be nonthermal, selectively affects dividing cells while quiescent cells are left intact. These fields act in two modes: arrest of cell proliferation and destruction of cells while undergoing division. Both effects are demonstrated when such fields are applied for 24 h to cells undergoing mitosis that is oriented roughly along the field direction. The first mode of action is manifested by interference with the proper formation of the mitotic spindle, whereas the second results in rapid disintegration of the dividing cells. Both effects, which are frequency dependent, are consistent with the computed directional forces exerted by these specific fields on charges and dipoles within the dividing cells. In vivo treatment of tumors in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (B16F1 and CT-26 syngeneic tumor models, respectively), resulted in significant slowing of tumor growth and extensive destruction of tumor cells within 3–6 days. These findings demonstrate the potential applicability of the described electric fields as a novel therapeutic modality for malignant tumors.
Dose-Dependent ATP Depletion and Cancer Cell Death following Calcium Electroporation, Relative Effect of Calcium Concentration and Electric Field Strength
Background: Electroporation, a method for increasing the permeability of membranes to ions and small molecules, is used in the clinic with chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment (electrochemotherapy). Electroporation with calcium causes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion and cancer cell death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy.
Methods: In three human cell lines—H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability was determined after treatment with 1, 3, or 5 mM calcium and eight 99 μs pulses with 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 or 1.6 kV/cm. Fitting analysis was applied to quantify the cell-killing efficacy in presence of calcium. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was measured in H69 and SW780 cells. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells.
Results: Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p<0.05) and reduced viability. The 50% effective cell kill was found at 3.71 kV/cm (H69) and 3.28 kV/cm (SW780), reduced to 1.40 and 1.15 kV/cm (respectively) with 1 mM calcium (lower EC50 for higher calcium concentrations). Quinacrine fluorescence intensity of calcium-electroporated U937 cells was one third lower than in controls (p<0.0001).
Conclusions: Calcium electroporation dose-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field.
General Significance: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials.
Electroporating Fields Target Oxidatively Damaged Areas in the Cell Membrane.
Reversible electropermeabilization (electroporation) is widely used to facilitate the introduction of genetic material and pharmaceutical agents into living cells. Although considerable knowledge has been gained from the study of real and simulated model membranes in electric fields, efforts to optimize electroporation protocols are limited by a lack of detailed understanding of the molecular basis for the electropermeabilization of the complex biomolecular assembly that forms the plasma membrane. We show here, with results from both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments with living cells, that the oxidation of membrane components enhances the susceptibility of the membrane to electropermeabilization. Manipulation of the level of oxidative stress in cell suspensions and in tissues may lead to more efficient permeabilization procedures in the laboratory and in clinical applications such as electrochemotherapy and electrotransfection-mediated gene therapy.
Electromagnetic Treatment to Old Alzheimer’s Mice Reverses b-Amyloid Deposition, Modifies Cerebral Blood Flow, and Provides Selected Cognitive Benefit
Few studies have investigated physiologic and cognitive effects of ‘‘long-term’’ electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in humans or animals. Our recent studies have provided initial insight into the long-term impact of adulthood EMF exposure (GSM, pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.25–1.05 W/kg) by showing 6+ months of daily EMF treatment protects against or reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s transgenic (Tg) mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. Mechanistically, EMF-induced cognitive benefits involve suppression of brain b-amyloid (Ab) aggregation/deposition in Tg mice and brain mitochondrial enhancement in both Tg and normal mice. The present study extends this work by showing that daily EMF treatment given to very old (21–27 month) Tg mice over a 2-month period reverses their very advanced brain Ab aggregation/deposition. These very old Tg mice and their normal littermates together showed an increase in general memory function in the Y-maze task, although not in more complex tasks. Measurement of both body and brain temperature at intervals during the 2-month EMF treatment, as well as in a separate group of Tg mice during a 12-day treatment period, revealed no appreciable increases in brain temperature (and no/slight increases in body temperature) during EMF ‘‘ON’’ periods. Thus, the neuropathologic/cognitive benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. Finally, regional cerebral blood flow in cerebral cortex was determined to be reduced in both Tg and normal mice after 2 months of EMF treatment, most probably through cerebrovascular constriction induced by freed/ disaggregated Ab (Tg mice) and slight body hyperthermia during ‘‘ON’’ periods. These results demonstrate that long-term EMF treatment can provide general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer’s Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Ab neuropathology in Tg mice without brain heating. Results further underscore the potential for EMF treatment against AD.
Experimental and Numerical investigation of Electromagnetic Field at Different Cancer Cell Lines
There is a strong interest of investigation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) ElectroMagnetic (EM) fields in the clinic. In this study we investigated experimentally in-vitro and in-sillico with computer simulation influence of 50 Hz EM field at three different cancer cell lines: breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116. Computer reaction-diffusion model with the net rate of cell proliferation and effect of electromagnetic field in time was developed. The fitting procedure for estimation of the computer model parameters was implemented. Experimental and computer model data have shown good comparison. These findings can open a new avenue for better controlling the growth of cancer cells at specific frequencies without affecting normal tissues, which may have a great influence in clinical oncology.
Inhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low- Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs)
The formation of new blood vessels is an essential therapeutic target in many diseases such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. In this regard, extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) seem able to inhibit vessel growth when used in a specific window of amplitude. To investigate the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action of ELFEMFs we tested the effect of a sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) of 2 mT intensity and frequency of 50 Hz on endothelial cell models HUVEC and MS-1 measuring cell status and proliferation, motility and tubule formation ability. MS-1 cells when injected in mice determined a rapid tumor-like growth that was significantly reduced in mice inoculated with MF-exposed cells. In particular, histological analysis of tumors derived from mice inoculated with MF-exposed MS-1 cells indicated a reduction of hemangioma size, of blood-filled spaces, and in hemorrhage. In parallel, in vitro proliferation of MS-1 treated with MF was significantly inhibited. We also found that the MF-exposure down-regulated the process of proliferation, migration and formation of tubule-like structures in HUVECs. Using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we collected data about the possible influence of MF on the signalling pathway activated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In particular, MF exposure significantly reduced the expression and activation levels of VEGFR2, suggesting a direct or indirect influence of MF on VEGF receptors placed on cellular membrane. In conclusion MF reduced, in vitro and in vivo, the ability of endothelial cells to form new vessels, most probably affecting VEGF signal transduction pathway that was less responsive to activation. These findings could not only explain the mechanism of anti-angiogenic action exerted by MFs, but also promote the possible development of new therapeutic applications for treatment of those diseases where excessive angiogenesis is involved.
Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels
Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas- EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca2+ influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. Blocking Ca2+ uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca2+ influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.
Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Enhance Antitumor Immune Response against Mouse H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Objective: Many studies have shown that magnetic fields (MF) inhibit tumor growth and influence the function of the immune system. However, the effect of MF on mechanism of immunological function in tumor-bearing mice is still unclear.
Methods: In this study, tumor-bearing mice were prepared by subcutaneously inoculating Balb/c mice with hepatocarcinoma cell line H22. The mice were then exposed to a low frequency MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 30 days. Survival rate, tumor growth and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured.
Results: MF treatment could prolong survival time (n = 28, p,0.05) and inhibit tumor growth (n = 9, p,0.01) in tumorbearing mice. Moreover, this MF suppressed tumor-induced production of cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (G-CSF) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) (n = 9–10, p,0.05 or 0.01). Furthermore, MF exposure was associated with activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, enhanced profiles of CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the balance of Th17/Treg and reduced inhibitory function of Treg cells (n = 9–10, p,0.05 or 0.01) in the mice model.
Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of MF on tumor growth was related to the improvement of immune function in the tumorbearing mice.
Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation prevents cell death of puromycin treated U937 cell line
Aim of the study was to verify whether pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) can affect cancer cells proliferation and death. U937 human lymphoid cell line at densities starting from 1x106 cells/ml to 0.0625x106 cells/ml, were exposed to a pulsating magnetic field 50Hz, 45±5 mT three times for 3 h per each stimulation with 24 h intervals. Proliferation has been studied by counting number of cells stimulated and non-stimulated by PEMF during four days of cultivation. Viability of cells was analyzed by APC labeled Annexin V and 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) dye binding and flow cytometry. Growing densities of cells increase cell death in cultures of U937 cells. PEMF exposition decreased amount of cells only in higher densities. Measurement of Annexin V binding and 7-AAD dye incorporation has shown that density-induced cell death corresponds with decrease of proliferation activity. PEMF potentiated density-induced death both apoptosis and necrosis. The strongest influence of PEMF has been found for 1x106cells/ml and 0.5x106 cells/ml density. To eliminate density effect on cell death, for further studies density 0.25x106 cells/ml was chosen. Puromycin, a telomerase inhibitor, was used as a cell death inducer at concentration 100 μg/ml. Combined interaction of three doses of puromycin and three fold PEMF interaction resulted in a reduction of apoptosis by 24,7% and necrosis by 13%. PEMF protects U937 cells against puromycin-induced cell death. PEMF effects on the human lymphoid cell line depends upon cell density. Increased density induced cells death and on the other hand prevented cells death induced by puromycin.
Subcutaneous Ehrlich Tumor Growth Retardation Using Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Pulses (ELF MPs)
The objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of extremely low frequency magnetic pulses (ELF MPs, 0.7Hz, 0.88±0.02 mT) against subcutaneous implanted Ehrlich tumor in mice. Thirty Swiss Albino BALB/C female mice were equally divided into three groups: normal mice group (GP I), untreated tumor positive control mice (GP II) and ELF MPs-tumor local exposure mice group (GP III) (1h/day, for 3 alternative days). Body weight changes and blood hematological findings of three experimental groups have been assessed. Tumor volume following up and structure changes of tumor tissues from the two tumor bearing mice groups (control and exposed) were scanned under light microscope (LM). ELF MPs caused a reduction in increase percentage of mice body weight, as compared with the untreated control mice. The results also indicated that tumor local exposure to ELF MPs retarded its growth activity. Moreover, ELF MPs can modulate some blood hematological parameters of exposed tumor bearing mice (lymphocytes percentage, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count), with respect to the control mice. Additionally, the exposed tumor tissues LM examinations resulted in less dense tumor cells. It can be concluded that ELF MPS are a promising modality for treatment of tumors and can offer a good improvement in hematological profile in exposed tumor bearing mice to be nearly retuned as normal mice.
Case Study Reference Source:
1. Alternating electric fields (TTFields) inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs
(Authors: Eilon D. Kirson, Moshe Giladi, Zoya Gurvich, Aviran Itzhaki, Daniel Mordechovich, Rosa S. Schneiderman, Yoram Wasserman, Bernhard Ryffel, Dorit Goldsher, Yoram Palti)
2. An introduction to electromagnetic field therapy and immune function: a brief history and current status
(Authors: Christina L. Ross and Benjamin S. Harrison)
3. Beneficial Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation in Cancer
(Authors: I. Verginadis1, A. Velalopoulou1, I. Karagounis1, Y. Simos1, D. Peschos1, S. Karkabounas1 and A. Evangelou1)
4. Bioelectromagnetic Field Effects on Cancer Cells and Mice Tumors
(Authors: HERMANN BERG1N, BERND GUNTHER, INGRID HILGER, MARIA RADEVA, NELLY TRAITCHEVA AND LEO WOLLWEBER)
5. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSATING MAGNETIC FIELDS: ROLE OF SOLITONS
(Authors: L. Brizhik)
6. Biophysical and Biological Studies on the Effect of Electromagnetic Field on the Ehrlich Tumor Cells Implanted In Mice
(Authors: Magda Hanafy, Mona Hussein and Mohamed Hashem)
7. Cutaneous Papilloma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapy Utilizing Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEF)
(Authors: Dong Yin*, Wangrong G. Yang, Jack Weissberg, Catherine B. Goff1, Weikai Chen, Yoshio Kuwayama, Amanda Leiter, Hongtao Xing, Antonie Meixel, Daria Gaut, Fikret Kirkbir, David Sawcer, P. Thomas Vernier, Jonathan W. Said, Martin A. Gundersen, H. Phillip Koeffler)
8. Disruption of Cancer Cell Replication by Alternating Electric Fields
(Authors: Eilon D. Kirson, Zoya Gurvich, Rosa Schneiderman, Erez Dekel, Aviran Itzhaki, Yoram Wasserman, Rachel Schatzberger and Yoram Palti)
9. Dose-Dependent ATP Depletion and Cancer Cell Death following Calcium Electroporation, Relative Effect of Calcium Concentration and Electric Field Strength
(Authors: Emilie Louise Hansen, Esin Bengisu Sozer, Stefania Romeo, Stine Krog Frandsen, P. Thomas Vernier, Julie Gehl)
10. Electroporating Fields Target Oxidatively Damaged Areas in the Cell Membrane
(Authors: P. Thomas Vernier1, Zachary A. Levine, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Vanessa Joubert, Matthew J. Ziegler, Lluis M. Mir, D. Peter Tieleman)
11. Electromagnetic Treatment to Old Alzheimer’s Mice Reverses b-Amyloid Deposition, Modifies Cerebral Blood Flow, and Provides Selected Cognitive Benefit
(Authors: Gary W. Arendash1, Takashi Mori, Maggie Dorsey, Rich Gonzalez, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar Borlongan)
12. Experimental and Numerical investigation of Electromagnetic Field at Different Cancer Cell Lines
(Authors: Nenad D. Filipovic Member, IEEE, Tijana R. Djukic, Milos Radovic, Danijela Cvetkovic, Snezana Markovic and Branislav Jeremic)
13. Inhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs)
(Authors: Simona Delle Monache, Adriano Angelucci1, Patrizia Sanita`, Roberto Iorio, Francesca Bennato, Fabrizio Mancini, Giancaterino Gualtieri, Rosella Cardigno Colonna)
14. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels
(Authors: Carly A. Buckner, Alison L. Buckner1, Stan A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger, Robert M. Lafrenie)
15. Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Enhance Antitumor Immune Response against Mouse H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma
(Authors: Yunzhong Nie, Yueqiu Chen, Yongbin Mou, Leihua Weng, Zhenjun Xu, Youwei Du, Wenmei Wang, Yayi Hou1, Tingting Wang)
16. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation prevents cell death of puromycin treated U937 cell line
(Authors: J. KASZUBA-ZWOINSKA, K. WOJCIK, M. BERETA, A. ZIOMBER, P. PIERZCHALSKI, E. ROKITA, J. MARCINKIEWICZ, W. ZARASKA, P. THOR)
17. Subcutaneous Ehrlich Tumor Growth Retardation Using Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Pulses (ELF MPs)
(Authors: Amany M. Hamad, Reem H. Elgebaly and Fadel M. Ali)