Case Studies supporting PEMF benefits for General PEMF
A review of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) mechanisms at a cellular level: a rationale for clinical use
Delivery of health care demands evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice helps to ensure that all facets of health care delivery are subject to a higher level of accountability. This helps to assure that the patient is receiving treatment that has some proof of efficacy. In recent years, physiotherapy practice has been influenced by a swell of research which, in many cases, supports current practice and, in some cases, influences change of practice. Despite the fact that there is a significant increase in the numbers of clinical trials and reviews in Physiotherapy, including research in electromagnetic modalities and mechanical modalities, it is not uncommon for a practitioner to feel at a loss to answer, “Exactly how does this treatment work?” This paper will review the mechanisms of action of the most common electromagnetic modalities and provide a rationale as to why “pulsed” fields seem to produce more significant effects compared with continuous applications. It will be shown that significant tissue healing effects, particularly with the modality PEMF, are likely the result of increased activity in non-excitable cells. The reputation of electromagnetic modalities has suffered in recent years, likely due to a lack of understanding of mechanisms for action. In the literature, the understanding in this area has made considerable progress over the past ten years. This review will explain the science at a cellular level and suggest the potential mechanisms for action for the modalities with specific focus on PEMF.
Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons Bioelectromagnetics Applications in Medicine
Bioelectromagnetics (BEM) is the emerging science that studies how living organisms interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields. Electrical phenomena are found in all living organisms. Moreover, electrical currents exist in the body that are capable of producing magnetic fields that extend outside the body. Consequently, they can be influenced by external magnetic and EM fields as well. Changes in the body's natural fields may produce physical and behavioral changes. To understand how these field effects may occur, it is first useful to discuss some basic phenomena associated with EM fields.
In its simplest form, a magnetic field is a field of magnetic force extending out from a permanent magnet. Magnetic fields are produced by moving electrical currents. For example, when an electrical current flows in a wire, the movement of the electrons through the wire produces a magnetic field in the space around the wire.
Electromagnetic fields as first messenger in biological signaling: Application to calmodulin-dependent signaling in tissue repair
Background: The transduction mechanism for non-thermal electromagnetic field (EMF) bioeffects has not been fully elucidated. This study proposes that an EMF can act as a first messenger in the calmodulin-dependent signaling pathways that orchestrate the release of cytokines and growth factors in normal cellular responses to physical and/or chemical insults.
Methods: Given knowledge of Ca2+ binding kinetics to calmodulin (CaM), an EMF signal having pulse duration or carrier period shorter than bound Ca2+ lifetime may be configured to accelerate binding, and be detectable above thermal noise. New EMF signals were configured to modulate calmodulin-dependent signaling and assessed for efficacy in cellular studies.
Results: Configured EMF signals modulated CaM-dependent enzyme kinetics, produced several-fold increases in key second messengers to include nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in chondrocyte and endothelial cultures and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in neuronal cultures. Calmodulin antagonists and downstream blockers annihilated these effects, providing strong support for the proposed mechanism.
Conclusions: Knowledge of the kinetics of Ca2+ binding to CaM, or for any ion binding specific to any signaling cascade, allows the use of an electrochemical model by which the ability of any EMF signal to modulate CaM-dependent signaling can be assessed a priori or a posteriori. Results are consistent with the proposed mechanism, and strongly support the Ca/CaM/NO pathway as a primary EMF transduction pathway.
General significance: The predictions of the proposed model open a host of significant possibilities for configuration of non-thermal EMF signals for clinical and wellness applications that can reach far beyond fracture repair and wound healing.
EMOST: Report about the application of low frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields in disaster situation and commando training
Chief Scientific Consulting of BioLabor 1 Biophysical- and Laboratories Services Ltd, Budapest, Hungary, 2 Pro Deo State University, Chairman of BioLabor Biophysical- and Laboratories Services Ltd, Budapest, Hungary, 3 National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation, Budapest, Hungary, 4 NATO Centre of Excellence for Military Medicine, Lessons Learned Branch Acting Branch Chief, Budapest, Hungary, 5 Police Lieutenant- Colonel, Antiterror Unit, Branch Chief of Training Master Trainer of Special Units, Budapest, Hungary, 6 Hungarian National Police and Provost Duties, Armed Marshalls Training Center (ORFK-RSZKK) Marksman- and Tactical Units Training Department Chief, Budapest, Hungary, 7 Hungarian Military Hospital, Budapest, Hungary; Assistant-head of Ambulance Department; Multinational Forces and Observers Sinai Mission-surgeon (from 2000 to 2001); NATO Skopje HQ surgeon (2003), and 8 President of International Bodyguard and Security Services Association, Executive President and Professor of International Budo Academy, Budapest, Hungary.
Recently, we published our results (Bo´kkon et al., 2011. Electromagn Biol Med.) regarding the effectiveness of the EMOST (Electro-Magnetic-Own-Signal-Treatment) method for the reduction of phantom limb pain under clinical circumstances. However, EMOST treatments not only significantly reduced phantom pain, but that most of the patients also reported about additional benefits such as improvement of their sleep and mood quality after treatments. Here we report some unusual applications of EMOST method under special situations. That is, we report about our effective EMOST treatments of humans under catastrophic conditions and commando training course. This article points out that it is reasonable to apply biophysical electromagnetic management under unique circumstances. We also report some preliminary experiments on 12 members of our BioLabor regarding the effectiveness of single EMOST treatment on some serum parameters and electrocardiogram.
Energy medicine (EM) is medicine based on physics instead of biochemistry. Energy medicine works with subtle forms of energy known as chi or prana that exist in and around the human body. EM treats with the understanding that all illness results from disturbances in this energy known as the human biofield. Physics does not override biochemistry, it drives it. Biology and chemistry behave according to the laws of physics. Physics is the study of energy. The human body is made of energy. It has structure (bones), plumbing (digestive tract), and electricity (nervous systems), all infused with energy. Energy is a property of all matter, therefore cells, molecules, and atoms are all made of energy. Science has begun to measure the subtle but important energy field around the human body and research is showing that when the natural flow of energy is obstructed, disordered, and depleted, the body becomes diseased.
Evidence-Based Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Clinical Plastic Surgery
Background: The initial development of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and its evolution over the last century for use in clinical surgery has been slow, primarily because of lack of scientifically-derived, evidence- based knowledge of the mechanism of action.
Objective: Our objective was to review the major scientific breakthroughs and current understanding of the mechanism of action of PEMF therapy, providing clinicians with a sound basis for optimal use.
Methods: A literature review was conducted, including mechanism of action and biologic and clinical studies of PEMF. Using case illustrations, a holistic exposition on the clinical use of PEMF in plastic surgery was performed.
Results: PEMF therapy has been used successfully in the management of postsurgical pain and edema, the treatment of chronic wounds, and in facilitating vasodilatation and angiogenesis. Using scientific support, the authors present the currently accepted mechanism of action of PEMF therapy.
Conclusions: This review shows that plastic surgeons have at hand a powerful tool with no known side effects for the adjunctive, noninvasive, nonpharmacologic management of postoperative pain and edema. Given the recent rapid advances in development of portable and economical PEMF devices, what has been of most significance to the plastic surgeon is the laboratory and clinical confirmation of decreased pain and swelling following injury or surgery.
Electromagnetic Fields and Life
This review paper analyzes the role of natural and man-made magnetic and electromagnetic fields in origin and evolution of life as well as the effects of contemporary magnetic/electromagnetic fields on human life. Both, hazard and benefit of these fields is discussed with the review of variety of signals that affect human life. The emphasis is on the use of electromagnetic fields in medicine for diagnostics and therapy. The paper demonstrates basic science and clinical achievements in planning and executing studies and clinical trials, as well as the perspectives for future development of magnetotherapy.
Magnetic Resonance: Impact on Cell Function
The use of magnetism in medicine is recorded in the history of most civilizations. The first usage is noted in Chinese writings (approximately 2000 B.C.), referencing the use of magnetism in conjunction with acupuncture. Cleopatra is said to have worn a lodestone on her forehead to prevent aging.
Long ago, the Earth was surrounded by a much stronger magnetic field than it is today. Scientists have observed a decline in its strength over the past 155 years. They have also discovered, from studying ocean floor samples, that higher vertebrates have died out due to the decline. The effects of this decline on human health were discovered when astronauts experienced bone calcium loss and muscle cramps as a result of being distant from the Earth's magnetic field for an extended time. When artificial magnetic fields were placed in the space vessels, the astronauts maintained their health.
Healthy cells generally have transmembrane potentials of approximately 70 millivolts. These potentials are considerably lower in aged and diseased cells due to the alterations of structure, making them unable to function normally. Restoration of the original potentials enables aged or damaged subcellular structure to regain their function.
In the late 1950s, magnetic field deficiency syndrome was identified in Japan. It resembles chronic fatigue syndrome, with symptoms including fatigue, dizziness, general aches and pains, and frequent headaches. These symptoms were alleviated by the external application of a magnetic field to the human body. Even today, athletes use metal, magnets and electric shocks in various ways to enhance their performance and alleviate pain. Golfers wear copper bracelets, claiming it stops arthritis from hindering their game. Golfers and baseball pitchers tape magnets to their arms to boost blood flow and ameliorate pain. During breaks in a game, athletes often relieve their soreness with electric shocks. Electrostimulators send helpful charges to the muscles and joints.
MECHANISMS AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF TIME-VARYING AND STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
It is now commonplace to learn of the successful use of weak non-thermal electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the quest to heal, or relieve the symptoms of, a variety of debilitating ailments. This review will attempt to give the reader an introduction and assessment of EMF modalities which have demonstrated therapeutic benefit for bone and wound repair and chronic and acute pain relief. This review will concentrate on the use of exogenous time-varying and static magnetic fields. There is, however, a large body of research, including many clinical studies, describing the successful application of electrical signals via electrodes in electrochemical contact with the skin for pain relief and to enhance wound repair. Consideration of these modalities is beyond the scope of this review. The reader is referred to several excellent reviews of such electrical stimulation modalities (1-5). Electroporation (6-8,372), which applies high amplitude (>100V/cm), short duration (≤1 msec), voltage pulses with electrodes in contact with the target, allows controlled transient opening of the cell and other membranes, and has shown promise for gene transvection (9) and treatment of certain cancers (10), is also beyond the scope of this review. Finally RF (>100 MHz) and microwave signals are also beyond the scope of this review since these modalities are rarely utilized to enhance bone or wound repair, but rather for tissue heating, thermal ablation or as surgical tools. Non-thermal bioeffects at these frequencies have been reported, but there are many controversial findings. Excellent reviews are available for the reader interested in more detail (11,373).
As of this writing there are a considerable number of peer-reviewed publications which show EMF can result in physiologically beneficial in vivo and in vitro bioeffects. The number of people who have received substantial clinical benefit from exogenous EMF is certainly in the millions worldwide and increasing rapidly as new clinical indications emerge. EMF therapies also present as alternatives to many pharmacologic treatments with virtually no toxicity or side effects. Time-varying electromagnetic fields consisting of rectangular or arbitrary waveforms, referred to as pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF), pulse modulated radio frequency waveforms, particularly in the 15–40 MHz range, referred to as pulsed radio frequency fields (PRF) and low frequency sinusoidal waveforms (< 100 Hz) have been shown to enhance healing when used as adjunctive therapy for a variety of musculoskeletal injuries. Indeed, peer-reviewed meta-analyses clearly show both PEMF and PRF modalities, now approved by regulatory bodies worldwide and widely used on patients to enhance bone and wound repair, are clinically effective (12-13). Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanism of action of EMF signals at the molecular and cellular level is now much better understood and strongly suggests ion/ligand binding in a regulatory cascade could be the signal transduction pathway (14-28). Furthermore, a priori configuration of physiologically effective waveforms via tuning the electrical properties of the exogenous EMF signal to the endogenous electrical properties of ion binding has recently been reported (29-30).
This chapter will provide a brief overview of the basic and clinical evidence that time-varying magnetic fields (EMF) can modulate molecular, cellular and tissue function in a physiologically significant manner. The fundamental questions relating to the biophysical conditions under which EMF signals could modulate cell and tissue function will be discussed in detail. Particular attention will be paid to the manner by which signal parameters are related to dosimetry. In other words, the properties which render an EMF signal bioeffective. An attempt is made to correlate dosimetry for weak magnetic field with that for electric field effects. The ratio of signal to (endogenous) thermal noise (SNR) in the target is used in a SNR/Dynamical Systems model which has been successful for the a priori configuration of physiologically significant waveforms and which the reader may find useful to decipher the myriad of waveforms that have been utilized. The model may also allow the reader to perform a posteriori analysis of waveforms for dose related explanations for the presence or absence of a biological effect. Examples of in vivo and in vitro studies are given, illustrating specific EMF waveforms, including several examples of the use of the model.
Multiple chemical sensitivity and persistent pain states are related, may be treated with similar procedures?
In this issue of Scandinavian Journal of Pain, Marie Tran and colleagues  investigate whether pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) is a feasible treatment for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). In an open case study, the authors found that two of the three MCS patients who participated in the study improved in terms of symptoms and functional impairment after an eight week PEMF treatment programme. Additionally, capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia seemed to decrease as an effect of the treatment. Based on these case reports, the authors suggest a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of PEMF on MCS.
Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Author: Tiziano Marovino
From a patient-sensation standpoint, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) generally are not "felt" during a treatment session, but the treatment effects typically will not disappoint. Our two favorite applications are for migraine head pain and non-healing bone fracture(s). Others have used PEMF for soft-tissue pathologies with varying severity, chronicity, and complexity. This is a very user-friendly modality for patients and does not usually involve direct provider-patient (attended) time.
Is there a role of pulsed electromagnetic fields in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome? Randomized controlled study at one year follow-up
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common cause of recurrent or chronic knee pain in young adults, generally located in the retropatellar region. Etiology is controversial and includes several factors, such as anatomical defects, muscular imbalance, or joint overuse. Good results have been reported with exercise therapy, including home exercise program (HEP). Joint inflammation with increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the synovial fluid might be seen especially when chondromalacia becomes evident. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has shown anti-inflammatory effects and anabolic chondrocyte activity. The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate if the combination of HEP with PEMFs was more effective than HEP alone in PFPS treatment. Thirty-one PFPS patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were instructed to train with HEP. Patients in the PEMFs group associated HEP with PEMFs. Function and pain were assessed with Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment score (VISA), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Feller's Patella Score at baseline at 2, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Drug assumption was also recorded. Increase in VISA score was significantly higher in PEMFs group compared to controls at 6 and 12 months, as well as the increase in the Feller's Patella Score at 12 months. VAS score became significantly lower in the PEMFs group with respect to control group since 6 month follow-up. Pain reduction obtained with PEMFs enhanced practicing therapeutic exercises leading to a better recovery process; this is extremely important in addressing the expectations of young patients, who wish to return to sporting activities. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:81-88, 2016.
The multipotent action of electromagnetic field
The use of electromagnetic field in the treatment of diseases has already been known for centuries. Low hazard, wide applicability, good clinical effect and the relatively low cost enable the electromagnetic field therapy to be widely used. The biological effect of the electromagnetic field is based on inter alia, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, osteogenetic and regenerative actions, which are associated with the changes in cellular signal transmission, action on biological membranes, ion transport processes, protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the electromagnetic field increases quantity of collagen content elevating its density and a more regular arrangement. Furthermore, it induces the activation of glutathione peroxidase and intensification of the process of erythropoiesis leading to better use of oxygen in the tissues around the wound. The electromagnetic field is used in rehabilitation of patients with diseases of skeletal, nervous and respiratory systems. Moreover, electromagnetic field may be used in the course of most inflammatory diseases and in the case of concomitant pain. The objective of this paper is to present the actual state of knowledge on selected applications of electromagnetic field in the biomedical treatment area.
Case Study Reference Source:
1. A review of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) mechanisms at a cellular level: a rationale for clinical use
(Authors: Brett Wade)
2. Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons, Bioelectromagnetics Applications in Medicine
(Authors: "Beverly Rubik, Ph.D.", "Robert O. Becker, M.D.", "Robert G. Flower, M.S.", "Carlton F. Hazlewood, Ph.D.", "Abraham R. Liboff, Ph.D.", "Jan Walleczek, Ph.D.")
3. Electromagnetic fields as first messenger in biological signaling: Application to calmodulin-dependent signaling in tissue repair
(Authors: Arthur Pilla, Robert Fitzsimmons, David Muehsam, June Wu, Christine Rohde, Diana Casper)
4. EMOST: Report about the application of lowfrequency and intensity electromagnetic fields in disaster situation and commando training
(Authors: Istva´n Bo´kkon, Attila Erdo¨ fi-Szabo´, Attila Till, Ro´ bert Bala´zs, Zolta´n Sa´rosi, Zolta´n La´szlo´ Szabo´, Ga´bor Kolonics & George Popper)
5. Evidence-Based Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy in Clinical Plastic Surgery
(Authors: "Berish Strauch, MD", "Charles Herman, MD", "Richard Dabb, MD", "Louis J. Ignarro, PhD" and "Arthur A. Pilla, PhD")
6. Electromagnetic Fields and Life
(Authors: Marko S. Markov)
7. Magnetic Resonance: Impact on Cell Function
(Authors: Jerry Jacobson, PhD, DMD, IOM)
8. MECHANISMS AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF TIME-VARYING AND STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS
(Authors: Arthur A. Pilla)
9. Multiple chemical sensitivity and persistent pain states are related, may be treated with similar procedures?
(Authors: Linus Andersson)
10. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields
(Authors: Tiziano Marovino)
11. Is there a role of pulsed electromagnetic fields in management of patellofemoral pain syndrome? Randomized controlled study at one year follow-up
(Authors: Clemente Servodio lammarrone, Matteo Cadossi, Andrea Sambri , Eugenio Grosso, Bruno Corrado, Fernanda Servodio lammarrone)
12. The multipotent action of electromagnetic field
(Authors: Natalia Cichon, Alicja K. Olejnik, Elzbieta Miller & Joanna Saluk)