Inflammation

Case Studies supporting PEMF benefits for Inflammation

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on programmed resolution of inflammation pathway markers in human cells in culture

Abstract

Inflammation is a complex process involving distinct but overlapping biochemical and molecular events that are highly regulated. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is increasingly used to treat pain and edema associated with inflammation following surgery involving soft tissue. However, the molecular and cellular effects of PEMF therapy on pathways involved in the resolution of inflammation are poorly understood. Using cell culture lines relevant to trauma-induced inflammation of the skin (human dermal fibroblasts, human epidermal keratinocytes, and human mononuclear cells), we investigated the effect of PEMF on gene expression involved in the acute and resolution phases of inflammation. We found that PEMF treatment was followed by changes in the relative amount of messenger (m)RNAs encoding enzymes involved in heme catabolism and removal of reactive oxygen species, including an increase in heme oxygenase 1 and superoxide dismutase 3 mRNAs, in all cell types examined 2 hours after PEMF treatment. A relative increase in mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in lipid mediator biosynthesis was also observed, including an increase in arachidonate 12- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNAs in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes, respectively. The relative amount of both of these lipoxygenase mRNAs was elevated in mononuclear cells following PEMF treatment relative to nontreated cells. PEMF treatment was also followed by changes in the mRNA levels of several cytokines. A decrease in the relative amount of interleukin 1 beta mRNA was observed in mononuclear cells, similar to that previously reported for epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Based on our results, we propose a model in which PEMF therapy may promote chronic inflammation resolution by mediating gene expression changes important for inhibiting and resolving inflammation.

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on inflammatory pathway markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

Abstract

In the treatment of bacterial infections, antibiotics have proven to be very effective, but the way in which antibiotics are dosed can create a lag time between the administration of the drug and its absorption at the site of insult. The time it takes an antibiotic to reach therapeutic levels can often be significantly increased if the vascular system is compromized. Bacteria can multiply pending the delivery of the drug, therefore, developing treatments that can inhibit the inflammatory response while waiting for antibiotics to take effect could help prevent medical conditions such as septic shock. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the production of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), and the expression of the A20 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 3), in an inflamed-cell model. Lipopolysaccharide-challenged cells were exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at various frequencies in order to determine which, if any, frequency would affect the TNF-NFkB-A20 inflammatory response pathway. Our study revealed that cells continuously exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field at 5 Hz demonstrated significant changes in the down regulation of TNF-α and NFkB and also showed a trend in the down regulation of A20, as compared with controls. This treatment could be beneficial in modulating the immune response, in the presence of infection.

Electromagnetic Field Devices and Their Effects on Nociception and Peripheral Inflammatory Pain Mechanisms

Abstract

Context : During cell-communication processes, endogenous and exogenous signaling affects normal and pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences, such as extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to affect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs), downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) activity, and downregulating inflammatory modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) as well as the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). EMF devices could help clinicians who seek an alternative or complementary treatment for relief of patients chronic pain and disability.

Objective : The research team intended to review the literature on the effects of EMFs on inflammatory pain mechanisms.

Design: We used a literature search of articles published in PubMed using the following key words: low-frequency electromagnetic field therapy, inflammatory pain markers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), opioid receptors, G-protein coupling receptors, and enzymes.

Setting: The study took place at the Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Results: The mechanistic pathway most often considered for the biological effects of EMF is the plasma membrane, across which the EMF signal induces a voltage change. Oscillating EMF exerts forces on free ions that are present on both sides of the plasma membrane and that move across the cell surface through transmembrane proteins. The ions create a forced intracellular vibration that is responsible for phenomena such as the influx of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and the binding affinity of calmodulin (CaM), which is the primary transduction pathway to the secondary messengers, cAMP and cGMP, which have been found to influence inflammatory pain.

Conclusions: An emerging body of evidence indicates the existence of a frequency-dependent interaction between the mechanical interventions of EMF and cell signaling along the peripheral inflammatory pain pathway.

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field - A viable alternative therapy for arthritis

Abstract

Arthritis refers to more than 100 disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The existing pharmacological interventions for arthritis offer only symptomatic relief and they are not definitive and curative. Magnetic healing has been known from antiquity and it is evolved to the present times with the advent of electromagnetism. The original basis for the trial of this form of therapy is the interaction between the biological systems with the natural magnetic fields. Optimization of the physical window comprising the electromagnetic field generator and signal properties (frequency, intensity, duration, waveform) with the biological window, inclusive of the experimental model, age and stimulus has helped in achieving consistent beneficial results. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can provide noninvasive, safe and easy to apply method to treat pain, inflammation and dysfunctions associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and PEMF has a long term record of safety. This review focusses on the therapeutic application of PEMF in the treatment of these forms of arthritis. The analysis of various studies (animal models of arthritis, cell culture systems and clinical trials) reporting the use of PEMF for arthritis cure has conclusively shown that PEMF not only alleviates the pain in the arthritis condition but it also affords chondroprotection, exerts antiinflammatory action and helps in bone remodeling and this could be developed as a viable alternative for arthritis therapy.

The Use of Magnetic Field for the Reduction of Inflammation: A Review of the History and Therapeutic Results

Abstract

Interest in magnetic field (MF) therapy has increased rapidly in recent years as research shows that this noninvasive, cost-effective modality might be safer than drugs and surgical procedures for reduction of inflammation. Inflammation is a signal-mediated response to tissue invasion by pathogens or toxins or to injury or physical stresses. The immune response plays a pivotal role in reaction to insult, which triggers an inflammatory response almost immediately. Commonly, pharmaceuticals are used to suppress inflammation, although some evidence shows that suppressing inflammation can hinder wound healing. Immunological studies show that MF therapy, even low-intensity MF, interacts with cells and tissues, and the use of MF as an alternative or complement to currently prescribed therapies could lead to a faster reduction in the inflammatory response. This review highlights past and present outcomes in bioelectromagnetic therapies and some of the more promising findings on the effect that MF therapy plays in inflammatory responses.

Case Study Reference Source:

  • 1. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on programmed resolution of inflammation pathway markers in human cells in culture
    (Authors: Nicole Kubat, John Moffett, Linley M Fray)

  • 2. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on inflammatory pathway markers in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages
    (Authors: Christina L Ross1, Benjamin S Harrison)

  • 3. Electromagnetic Field Devices and Their Effects on Nociception and Peripheral Inflammatory Pain Mechanisms
    (Authors: "Christina L. Ross, PhD", "Thaleia Teli, PhD", "Benjamin S. Harrison, PhD")

  • 4. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field—A viable alternative therapy for arthritis
    (Authors: Kalaivani Ganesana, Akelayil Chandrapuram Gengadharanb, Chidambaram Balachandranc, Bhakthavatsalam Murali Manohard & Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnana)

  • 5. The Use of Magnetic Field for the Reduction of Inflammation: A Review of the History and Therapeutic Results
    (Authors: "Christina L. Ross", "Benjamin S. Harrison, PhD")