Rejuvenation

Case Studies supporting PEMF benefits for Rejuvenation

The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic field on human bone marrow stem/progenitor cell differentiation

Abstract

Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are a population of progenitor cells that contain a subset of skeletal stem cells (hSSCs), able to recreate cartilage, bone, stroma that supports hematopoiesis and marrow adipocytes. As such, they have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering due to their self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. The differentiation of SSCs/BMSCs is dependent on exposure to biophysical and biochemical stimuli that favor early and rapid activation of the in vivo tissue repair process. Exposure to exogenous stimuli such as an electromagnetic field (EMF) can promote differentiation of SSCs/BMSCs via ion dynamics and small signaling molecules. The plasmamembrane is often considered to be the main target for EMF signals and most results point to an effect on the rate of ion or ligand binding due to a receptor site acting as a modulator of signaling cascades. Ion fluxes are closely involved in differentiation control as stem cells move and grow in specific directions to form tissues and organs. EMF affects numerous biological functions such as gene expression, cell fate, and cell differentiation, but will only induce these effects within a certain range of low frequencies as well as low amplitudes. EMF has been reported to be effective in the enhancement of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis of hSSCs/BMSCs with no documented negative effects. Studies show specific EMF frequencies enhance hSSC/BMSC adherence, proliferation, differentiation, and viability, all of which play a key role in the use of hSSCs/BMSCs for tissue engineering. While many EMF studies report significant enhancement of the differentiation process, results differ depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Here we review how specific EMF parameters (frequency, intensity, and time of exposure) significantly regulate hSSC/BMSC differentiation in vitro. We discuss optimal conditions and parameters for effective hSSC/BMSC differentiation using EMF treatment in an in vivo setting, and how these can be translated to clinical trials.

The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury

Abstract

Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically the result of direct mechanical impact to the spine, leading to fracture and/or dislocation of the vertebrae along with damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of axonal transmission of signals. This primary trauma causes secondary injuries that produce immunological responses such as neuroinflammation, which perpetuates neurodegeneration and cytotoxicity within the injured spinal cord. To date there is no FDA-approved pharmacological agent to prevent the development of secondary SCI and induce regenerative processes aimed at healing the spinal cord and restoring neurological function. An alternative method to electrically activate spinal circuits is the application of a noninvasive electromagnetic field (EMF) over intact vertebrae. The EMF method of modulating molecular signaling of inflammatory cells emitted in the extra-low frequency range of <100 Hz, and field strengths of <5 mT, has been reported to decrease inflammatory markers in macrophages, and increase endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation rates. EMF has been reported to promote osteogenesis by improving the effects of osteogenic media, and increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts, while inhibiting osteoclast formation and increasing bone matrix in vitro. EMF has also been shown to increase chondrogenic markers and collagen and induce neural differentiation, while increasing cell viability by over 50%. As advances are made in stem cell technologies, stabilizing the cell line after differentiation is crucial to SCI repair. Once cell-seeded scaffolds are implanted, EMF may be applied outside the wound for potential continued adjunct treatment during recovery.

Case Study Reference Source:

  • 1. The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic field on human bone marrow stem/progenitor cell differentiation
    (Authors: Christina L. Ross, Mevan Siriwardanea, Graça Almeida-Poradaa, Christopher D. Poradaa, Peter Brinkc, George J. Christa, Benjamin S. Harrisona)

  • 2. The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury
    (Authors: Christina L. Ross, Ishaq Syed, Thomas L. Smith & Benjamin S. Harrison)